As a sophomore at the University of California at Davis, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in computer science and electrical engineering, Bruce Rogers was already on contract writing games in assembly language. At Atari Games, Bruce led programming teams to deliver products such as the original, coin-op version of Mace: The Dark Age® and War: Final Assault®. Bruce also completed ports of Mace to the PC and War to the Dreamcast in a matter of weeks through his individual efforts. Since joining Cryptic, Bruce designed and refined the engine that powers City of Heroes and City of Villains. He continues to refine Cryptic's proprietary game engine, train new programmers, and improve the internal tool chain that helps make Cryptic a leading developer.